What you need to know
Cardiologists from the Structural and Congenital Heart Center and Cardiac Surgeons at Hackensack University Medical Center/Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine have reported what is believed to be the very first patient with heart failure and a blood clot to undergo a minimally invasive transcatheter aortic valve replacement using CT (computed tomography) fusion imaging, a technique that employs two different imaging modalities.
The report, “CT Fusion Imaging Guidance for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in a Patient with Left Ventricular Thrombus,”1 was published in the April 11, 2022, edition of the cardiology journal JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions.
About the patient
The patient was described as a 78-year-old man with a history of obesity, high blood pressure, and coronary artery disease. He came to Hackensack University Medical Center’s Heart & Vascular Hospital with worsening labored breathing on exertion and swelling in the lower extremities over three months. His imaging workup revealed severe stenosis of the aortic valve, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction of 45 percent to 50 percent, and LV apical aneurysm with thrombus (an outpouching of the left ventricle with a blood clot). Ejection fraction is a measurement of the percentage of blood leaving the heart each time it contracts.
Cardiac catheterization showed severe coronary artery disease that was not amenable to minimally invasive procedures used to open clogged coronary arteries. He was started on anticoagulation with warfarin with planned follow-up.
The patient returned to the hospital six months later due to loss of consciousness from low blood pressure. Four-dimensional volume-rendered computed tomography (CT) images showed persistent left ventricle apical thrombus. The Heart & Vascular Hospital team elected to proceed with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) given his high surgical risk, poor functional status, lack of response to anticoagulation, and hospitalization for fainting.
Because of the risk posed by the apical thrombus, TAVR with CT fusion imaging (CTFI) guidance and cerebral embolic protection was planned.
The patient had an uneventful hospital course; there was no evidence of cerebral or systemic embolization. He was discharged in a few days and was doing well at his one month follow up appointment.
1 Vasudev et al JACC: CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS VOL. 15, NO. 7, 2022 TAVR With LV Thrombus APRIL 11, 2022:e77 – e79
”CT Fusion Imaging Guidance for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in a Patient With Left Ventricular Thrombus,” Rahul Vasudev, MD, Sayf Altabaqchali, MD, Yuriy Dudiy, MD, Michael Lim, MD, Vladimir Jelnin, MD, Tilak K.R. Pasala, MD